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206 Carothers McCaslin's Father

This is one of the characters in Go Down, Moses who only appear in the ledgers of the McCaslin plantation. There the entry for "Roskus" and "Fibby," written by Ike's father Buck McCaslin, mentions that Roskus was "rased by Granfather in Callina," and that Fibby was "bought by granfather in Callina" (252). This Carolina ancestor, the father of "Old Carothers" McCaslin and so the great-grandfather of Ike, is not mentioned any where else in the novel.

208 Delphine McCaslin

In The Reivers Delphine is the cook in Grandfather Priest's house and the fourth and current wife of Ned McCaslin (31).

209 Father of Lucius Priest I

In The Reivers Lucius briefly describes his Grandfather's father as a Confederate "color sergeant" who was shot and killed during the fighting in Virginia in 1862 (285). The fact that he was a sergeant rather than a commissioned officer complicates the question of the family's class status. When, for example, Lucius earlier discusses how his great-grandmother, this man's wife, taught his grandfather how to behave as a gentleman, it seems to imply an upper class background (cf.

210 Mother of Lucius Priest I

In The Reivers "Grandfather's mother" is mentioned twice: when Lucius Priest assumes that she taught her son to "make his manners" to a lady in the same way that the males in the family always do (200); and when Lucius notes that his Grandfather, "an only child," stayed with his mother in Carolina while his father was away fighting during the Civil War (285). She died in 1864.

211 Lemuel Stevens

Lemuel Stevens - usually Judge Stevens, but "Captain Stevens" in "Tomorrow" (96) - is the father of Gavin, and probably, although scholars disagree about this, the son of another man named Judge Stevens. He appears or is mentioned in 7 different texts. We see him in his role as a judge, but the military title is confusing, since there is no evidence that any of the Stevens family serve in either the U.S. or the Confederate armies.

212 Gowan Stevens' Mother

Gowan Stevens' mother never appears in person, but three Yoknapatawpha fictions mention her. If we re-arrange their order of publication as the sequence of events in her biography, her youngest mention occurs in The Town, where she accompanies her husband for the duration of his State Department assignment to "some far place" - which explains why she sends her son Gowan from Washington to Jefferson (3).

213 Gowan Stevens

The Stevenses are an old Jefferson family that becomes a very big part of the story of Yoknapatawpha by way of Faulkner's fondness for Gavin. The first member of the family to appear in the fictions is "Judge Stevens" in "A Rose for Emily," but in Sanctuary Gavin's second cousin Gowan becomes the first Stevens to play a significant role. And in Sanctuary Faulkner's treatment of Gowan is scathing. He's a recent graduate of the University of Virginia who likes to claim that he learned there both how to hold his liquor and how to be a gentleman.

214 Gowan Stevens' Grandfather

We know Gowan Stevens had a grandfather, because in The Town Charles Mallison mentions that Gowan's grandfather was his own grandfather's brother, but that doesn't tell us if Faulkner - or Temple Drake - actually has this man in mind when in Requiem for a Nun she tries to cover up what she was actually saying by telling Gowan that "I was telling Uncle Gavin he had something of Virginia or some sort of gentleman in him too that he must have inherited from you through your grandfather" (51-52). These are the only two mentions of this grandfather in the fictions.

215 Gowan Stevens' Father

Mentioned only in The Town, the man who is the father of Gowan Stevens works for the U.S. State Department. When he is assigned to "China or India or some far place" (3), he sends his son to Jefferson to stay with his Stevens cousins.

216 Gavin Stevens

Gavin Stevens appears altogether in seventeen fictions, making him one of Faulkner's most frequently recurring characters. Details about his past vary from text to text between "Hair" (1931) and The Mansion (1960) - "Hand Upon the Waters" describes him as the last remaining descendant of the original settlers of Yoknapatawpha; "Knight's Gambit" and The Mansion are the only texts to describe his service as a non-combatant in World War I. And in those two later texts he abruptly marries a former sweetheart, though elsewhere he appears to be a confirmed bachelor.

217 Maggie Stevens Mallison

Margaret (Maggie) Mallison is Judge Stevens' daughter, Gavin's twin sister, Charles Mallison's wife and Chick's mother. The role she plays in the six late fictions in which she appears or is mentioned is largely defined by her relationship to these male figures, especially to her son, toward whom she is unfailingly protective despite his own restiveness with her concerns. She is well-educated, within the limits defined by her gender and her caste: she attended the Jefferson Female Academy, where she met and became friends with the woman whom Gavin would eventually marry.

218 Charles Mallison I

Although he is mentioned in three short stories and actually appears in three novels, the father of Charles Mallison, Jr., remains an elusive character. He is dead in the first story that mentions him ("An Error in Chemistry") and almost irrelevant even in the texts where he appears: Intruder in the Dust, The Town and The Mansion. His wife, Maggie Stevens by birth and Gavin's twin sister, sometimes calls him Charley, and according to The Town he owns the livery stable in Jefferson (at a time when cars are displacing horses).

219 Charles Mallison II

Charles Mallison Jr. appears in nine texts, in all but one of them mainly as narrator, especially of the exploits and misadventures of the man he refers to hundreds of times, usually in an admiring tone, as "Uncle Gavin." Gavin is Gavin Stevens, and his nephew is thus a member of one of the older upper class families in Yoknapatawpha, the only child of Gavin's twin sister Maggie Stevens Mallison. Faulkner creates Charles ("Chick," as Gavin calls him once in "Tomorrow," the first time he's given any name) to serve as a kind of Dr.

220 Maggie Dandridge Stevens

The mother of Gavin and Maggie - Mrs. Lemuel Stevens, nee Maggie Dandridge - doesn't appear in person in the fictions, but various items associated with her do. In Intruder in the Dust the hat Eunice Habersham wears reminds her grandson Chick Mallison of her; it's a "round faintly dusty-looked black hat set squarely on the top of her head" (73); on both women, this looks "exactly right" (127). In "Knight's Gambit" Chick thinks of the books in his family's house as "the books . . . which his grandmother had chosen" (149).

221 Herbert Head

In The Sound and the Fury Herbert Head, whom Mrs. Compson calls "my Harvard boy" (93), is a banker from South Bend, Indiana. He and the already-pregnant Caddy meet in the fashionable resort of French Lick; in April 1910 they marry after Herbert promises Jason a job in the family bank, and tries to bribe Quentin to keep secret his expulsion from Harvard for cheating. The marriage does not last a year: when he discovers Caddy's pregnancy, Herbert disowns her and her child.

222 First Yoknapatawpha Stevens

There's no question that the Stevenses are one of the oldest families in Yoknapatawpha, but they may or may not be among the very first. When the most famous Stevens - Gavin - appears in Light in August, the narrator simply says his "ancestors" "owned slaves in Jefferson (444). In "Hand upon the Waters," however, one of the Knight's Gambit stories in which Gavin becomes a kind of detective, the narrator identifies the earliest "Stevens" as one of the first three white men to settle in what became Jefferson.

223 Temple Drake Stevens

As Temple Drake, she is the principal character in Sanctuary (1931); as Temple Drake Stevens, she is at the center of the dramatic portions of Requiem for a Nun. She is (as she says frequently in the first novel) the daughter of a judge, a member of an aristocratic family, and a very complex young woman. In the first novel she is a seventeen-year-old college student, "a small childish figure no longer quite a child, not yet quite a woman" (89), the heir to southern traditions trying on the contemporary role of flapper.

224 Bucky Stevens

In Requiem for a Nun, Temple and Gowan Stevens' son is "about four" (60). The older brother of the murdered infant, the perceptive Bucky asks his mother, "How long will we stay in California, mamma?" and "Will we stay here until they hang Nancy, mamma?" (61).

225 Temple and Gowan's Daughter

When Requiem for a Nun begins, the baby daughter of Gowan and Temple Drake Stevens has been murdered by Nancy.

226 Melisandre Backus Stevens

Although through most of the 1930s and 1940s Gavin Stevens looks like a confirmed bachelor, in four late fictions Faulkner decided to add love and marriage to his biography. The woman he marries was born Melisandre Backus, the descendant of the Melisandre who married a Backus in the middle of the Civil War ("My Grandmother Millard") and more immediately the only child of a Yoknapatawpha plantation owner. By the time she marries Gavin, she is the widow of a New Orleans gangster and the mother of two children.

227 Byron Snopes

Although Flem, Montgomery Ward, I.O. and Clarence are mentioned in Flags in the Dust, in that first Yoknapatawpha fiction Byron is the first Snopes whom Faulkner develops into a character. Many Snopeses are named for famous men or products in American culture (vide "Montgomery Ward"). 'Byron Societies' were bourgeois reading groups in the U.S. about the time Byron Snopes would have been born - there is even a "Byron Club" in Jefferson in The Town (325) - but it's hard to imagine Byron's parents (revealed in the Snopes trilogy to be I.O.

228 Wesley Snopes

Wesley Snopes is the father of Virgil and Byron. He appears as "the actual Snopes schoolmaster" instead of by name in The Town (42) and by name in The Mansion. In both novels, in addition to being the schoolmaster in Frenchman's Bend, he is a religious figure, a "revival song-leader" (Mansion, 79) "whose stage and scene were the scattered country churches and creeks and horse-ponds where during the hot summer Sundays revival services and baptisings took place" (Town, 43).

229 I.O. Snopes

I.O. Snopes' career as a character begins with the first Yoknapatawpha fiction, Flags in the Dust, and after six more appearances ends three decades later in The Mansion. In those eight texts his various jobs include restaurant manager, cotton speculator, mule trader, blacksmith and schoolteacher. In all of these contexts he is both comically out of place and nonetheless vaguely alarming - and impossible to get into a single focus, as Faulkner re-invents him more than once.

230 Mrs. I.O. Snopes 1

In The Hamlet I.O. Snopes calls himself "a single man, unfortunately" (225), but to the surprise of Frenchman's Bend, three years after he arrived in the hamlet he turns out to have a wife, a "big gray-colored woman" (292). When she appears with "a baby six months old" in a carriage, I.O. "takes one look at that buggy" and vanishes (293). Her character is not developed further in this novel. In the next novel in the Snopes trilogy, The Town, it turns out that she is only one of I.O.'s wives - he is a twice-married man, i.e. a bigamist.

231 Mrs. I.O. Snopes 2

Faulkner's decision in The Town to make I.O. Snopes a bigamist complicates the identity of the various characters who appear as his wife. The first such character appears in the first Yoknapatawpha fiction, Flags in the Dust, as a "placid mountain of a woman" who spends her days in the porch swing of their "small frame house" - "not doing anything: just swinging" (235). Her son is named Clarence.

232 Saint Elmo Snopes

As a child, a hulking and "bear-shaped" figure, Saint Elmo eats all of the candy in Varner's case (350). A son of I.O. Snopes from his first marriage, he appears only in The Hamlet. (The names of the various Snopeses come from a variety of sources; Saint Elmo's name comes from the title of an 1866 novel by Georgia author Augusta Jane Evans.)

233 Montgomery Ward Snopes

Montgomery Ward was named for a national retailer (Montgomery Ward) that specialized in selling by mail to rural customers. The son of I.O. and his first wife, he is among the first Snopeses Faulkner ever created. He doesn't appear in Flags in the Dust but is mentioned there when Horace Benbow's neighbor asks him about "your Snopes" (166). After faking a heart condition to evade the draft, Monty had accompanied Horace Benbow to World War I as a non-combatant working with the Y.M.C.A.

234 Clarence Snopes

On the Snopes family tree, Clarence - according to The Mansion, it's "pronounced 'Cla'nce'" (325) - is the son of I.O. and the half-brother of Montgomery Ward Snopes. He is one of the four Snopes named in Faulkner's first Yoknapatawpha fiction, Flags in the Dust, but appears only as the boy whose "hulking but catlike presence" makes Bryon Snopes nervous (235). It is in Sanctuary that his character as one of the most venal Snopeses emerges.

235 Bilbo Snopes

Bilbo is a minor figure in the last two volumes of the Snopes trilogy. In The Town he is the son of I.O. Snopes and his second wife and the twin to Vardaman Snopes. Not even that much is made clear when he is briefly mentioned inThe Mansion. He is named after Theodore G. Bilbo, a Mississippi Governor and U.S. Senator who was a staunch defender of white supremacy.

236 Vardaman Snopes

Vardaman (and his twin brother Bilbo) are minor figures in The Town and The Hamlet, one of the three (or four, in the second novel) sons of I.O. Snopes and his second wife. Also like Bilbo, he is named for one of the segregationist politicians in modern Mississippi politics, in his case for James K. Vardaman, a very outspoken white supremacist who served as both a Governor of Mississippi and a United States Senator.

237 Doris Snopes

Doris Snopes is the youngest brother of of Clarence Snopes. He "resembles Clarence not only in size and shape but [has] the same mentality of a child and the moral principles of a wolverine" (327). He appears only in The Mansion.

238 Unnamed Jicarilla Apache Squaw

This "Jicarilla squaw" from "Old Mexico" is the mother of "Byron Snopes's children" (379), the four sinister kids who appear at the end of The Town and then, as soon as Yoknapatawpha realizes how dangerous they are, are sent back into the west. She is mentioned, barely, in The Mansion, but nothing more can be said about her.

239 Byron Snopes' Daughter

Byron Snopes has four children - probably all illegitimate, legally - with a Jicarilla Apache in New Mexico. According to Charles Mallison's narrative in The Town, "the tallest was a girl though we never did know whether she was the oldest or just the tallest" (378); like her brothers, she is wearing overalls when she arrives in Jefferson. (All four children are mentioned in one phrase in The Mansion, as Byron's "four half-Snopes half-Apache Indian children, 327.)

240 Son of Byron Snopes 1

In The Town Byron Snopes has four children with an unnamed Apache woman in New Mexico. They are probably all legally illegitimate, and all are wearing overalls when they get off the train station in Jefferson. None are named, but two are specifically identified as "boys" (378). Charles Mallison's narrative does not differentiate between these boys. (All four children are mentioned in one phrase in The Mansion, as Byron's "four half-Snopes half-Apache Indian children, 327.)

241 Son of Byron Snopes 2

In The Town Byron Snopes has four children with an unnamed Apache woman in New Mexico. They are probably all legally illegitimate, and all are wearing overalls when they get off the train station in Jefferson. None are named, but two are specifically identified as "boys" (378). Charles Mallison's narrative does not differentiate between these boys. (All four children are mentioned in one phrase in The Mansion, as Byron's "four half-Snopes half-Apache Indian children, 327.)

242 Youngest Child of Byron Snopes

When Byron Snopes's four children step off the train in Jefferson, Chick describes the youngest as "a little one in a single garment down to its heels like a man's shirt made out of a flour- or meal-sack or maybe a scrap of an old tent" (378). He never indicates the sex of this child, perhaps because he cannot determine it himself - or perhaps to emphasize the strangeness of the four as a group. (All four children are mentioned in one phrase in The Mansion, as Byron's "four half-Snopes half-Apache Indian children, 327.)

243 Virgil Snopes

The biography of Virgil Snopes is one of the more unusual, even among the various Snopeses. When he first appears, in Sanctuary, he provides an occasion for comedy rather than alarm, as a sexually very naive young man who, on his first trip to the big city of Memphis, mistakes a brothel for a boarding house, and the prostitutes for the surprisingly large family of the landlady, Miss Reba. His friend and fellow babe-in-the-wood Fonzo takes him to another brothel, but afterwards Virgil complains about having to pay three dollars for something "you caint tote off with you" (196).

244 Launcelot|Lump Snopes

In The Hamlet, which has the most to say about Lump, Ratliff calls him "that Snopes encore" (218); he is referring to the fact that Lump takes his cousin Flem's place as clerk in the Varner store when Flem moves on up to Jefferson. His mother called Lump "Launcelot," surely one of the more egregious ironies in the Snopes' chronicles: as Ratliff elaborates, she chose the name of a Knight of the Round Table because she believed in the "honor and pride and salvation and hope" she had found "between the pages of books" (218).

245 Eckrum Snopes

Eck Snopes is one of Flem's cousins, though the narrator of "Spotted Horses," the first text in which Eck appears, tells us that "Flem would skin Eck quick as he would ere a one of us" (168) - and in the story he does. Eck acquires two of the Texas ponies, but loses both of them the same day; he even manages, in his hapless attempt to catch one of them, to break its neck. In the Snopes trilogy he fails again, and again, as a blacksmith, a mill worker, a restaurant cook and a watchman, but his failures are all admirable.

246 Wallstreet Panic Snopes

Wallstreet Panic Snopes - given his absurd name absurdly, in the hopes that it might mean he'll get rich, but more often called "Wall" in the fictions - is a very young "little periwinkle-eyed boy" when he first appears in The Hamlet (304). He appears in all three volumes of the Snopes trilogy, and his eyes are still "an incredible tender youthful periwinkle blue" at the end of The Mansion (461).

247 Mrs. Wallstreet Panic Snopes

Although the wife of Wallstreet Panic Snopes is never named in The Town, she is memorably characterized. When she first appears at school in Jefferson, the teacher, Miss Vaiden Wyott, instructs Wall that "this is she. Marry her." He does. His wife is described as a "tense fierce not quite plain-faced girl . . . and a will if anything even more furious" than Gavin's in opposing the rest of the Snopeses (154).

248 Admiral Dewey Snopes

Ad - Admiral Dewey Snopes - is one of Eck Snopes' children. He was named after a hero of the Spanish-American War.

249 Unnamed Uncle of Doom

In Faulkner's first two stories about the Indians who inhabit Yoknapatawpha in its early history, he does not name the man who is "The Man," the hereditary chief of the tribe. His sister is the mother of Doom. In "Red Leaves," The Man and his son both die shortly after Doom returns from a sojourn in New Orleans - presumably at Doom's hands, but that part of the story is left untold here.

250 Unnamed Cousin of Doom

In Faulkner's first two stories about the Indians who live in Yoknapatawpha when the white settlers begin arriving, neither the chief of the tribe (The Man) nor his son are named. In the patriarchal society Faulkner imagines, this son is heir to the title The Man - and as the son of The Man's sister, his cousin Doom is out of the line of succession. In "Red Leaves" both The Man and his son die mysteriously after Doom returns from a sojourn in New Orleans. In "A Justice" Doom's responsibility for their deaths is made explicit.

252 Boon Hogganbeck

The character of Boon Hogganbeck is essentially the same in all seven of his appearances in the fiction, though in one of them ("The Bear") his name is Hoggenbeck, and his lineage changes in another. In every text he has an Indian grandmother, but when he first appears, in "Lion," she is a "Chickasaw woman, niece of the chief who once owned the land" (184). Beginning with his next appearance, in "The Old People," Faulkner lowers her rank: Boon's blood, the narrator says, "is not a chief's blood" (203).

253 Unnamed Grandmother of Boon Hogganbeck

Boon's "mother's mother," as Intruder in the Dust puts it, was "a Chickasaw woman" (91). Five texts refer to this grandmother, though she herself never appears in any of them. In the first mention, in "Lion," there's some uncertainty about whether she might have been his mother instead: as Quentin puts it, "Boon was part Indian. They said half, but I don't think so. I think it was the grandmother who was the Chickasaw woman, niece of the chief who once owned the land Major de Spain now owned and over which we hunted" (184).

254 Unnamed Step-Father of Had-Two-Fathers

In both the 1940 magazine version of "The Old People" and the revised version of it that Faulkner published in Go Down, Moses, the step-father of Had-Two-Fathers is "one of the slaves which [Doom] inherited" from Moketubbe (the story, 203). After impregnating a slave woman from New Orleans, Doom "pronounces a marriage" between her and "one of the slave men he has just inherited" upon becoming "The Man" (the novel, 158). But this man's place on the family tree is ambiguous.

255 Unnamed Son of Ikkemotubbe

This character is one of the more elusive in Faulkner's fiction. The Harpers Magazine version of "The Old People" creates an ambiguity when it says that "almost a hundred years ago" Ikkemotubbe sold "his own son" to a white planter, the great-grandfather of the narrator on whose farm Sam lived for most of his life (203). Since Sam is "seventy" years old (202), he could not be this man, and would have to be this man's son.

256 Thomas Sutpen's Brother 3

Absalom! does not make clear how many siblings Thomas Sutpen has. "The two older boys" - Sutpen's older brothers - have left the family before it moves to the Virginia plantation (181), but they are not his only male siblings: Quentin tells Shreve that, because of the "dampness" and heat in the Tidewater, "sisters and brothers" get sick "after supper and die before the next meal" (184). Even allowing for hyperbole, this implies that there must have been at least one or two brothers besides the two older ones.

257 Thomas Sutpen's Sister 2

Based on the phrase "one of the sisters" in Absalom!, we can say that Thomas Sutpen has at least two sisters (185). This entry is not the sister who gets pregnant, twice, during the family's trip from the mountains to the Tidewater region of Virginia.

258 Thomas Sutpen's Sister 3

The Sutpens' family cabin in the mountains of Virginia is described in Absalom! as "boiling with children" (179), and the novel never makes it more clear how many siblings Thomas has. At least two sisters are alive and living with him and his father in Virginia when, at 14, he runs away from home (192). But there must have been more: at least, Quentin tells Shreve that, because of the "dampness" and heat in the Tidewater, "sisters and brothers" get sick "after supper and die before the next meal" (184).

259 Doctor Habersham's Son

In both "A Name for the City" and Requiem for a Nun the "half orphan" son of Doctor Habersham is eight years old when he first arrives at the Mississippi settlement with his widowed father (202, 6). As a grown man, he becomes the government's local Indian agent and marries a Chickasaw woman who is the granddaughter of either Issetibbeha (202; 7) or (in Requiem's second mention of the event, of Mohataha, 170).

261 Old Bayard's Aunt

At the start of Flags in the Dust, in Will Falls' re-telling about the time the Yankee patrol chased Colonel Sartoris away from his plantation, he reminds the Colonel's son Bayard that among the people living there was "yo' aunt, the one 'fo' Miss Jenny come" (22). According to Falls' story, she is "a full-blood Sartoris," but this is the only time Faulkner's fiction mentions her existence.

262 Unnamed Mother of Clytemnestra

According to Mr. Compson in Absalom! Clytemnestra's mother is one of the two women among the twenty slaves that Sutpen brought with him to Yoknapatawpha. The novel does not describe her, nor try to represent the relationship between her and Sutpen, the white man who claims to own her.

263 Quentin Compson's Aunt

Like the enigmatic aunt of (Old) Bayard Sartoris in Flags in the Dust, this aunt of Quentin Compson is hard to place on the family tree. She appears only, abruptly, in Absalom, Absalom! when Mr. Compson uses her to explain to his son Quentin something about the nature of women: this aunt - whom apparently neither of these males ever saw - is locked in what Mr. Compson calls one of those "inexplicable (to the man mind) amicable enmities" with "her nearest female kin" (156).

264 Maury Bascomb

In The Sound and the Fury Maury Bascomb is the brother of Caroline Bascomb Compson. For much of the Compson children's early life he lives in their home and regularly partakes of their father's whiskey; by 1928 he has moved away, but continues regularly to ask his sister for money. Benjy was originally named "Maury" in his honor. He also has an affair with the Compsons' next door neighbor, Mrs. Patterson. When the affair is revealed, Mr. Patterson beats Uncle Maury - or as Benjy puts it, "His eye was sick, and his mouth" (43).

265 Great Aunt of Charles Mallison

Charles Mallison's "great aunt" is one of several "aunts" in the canon that are hard to place on a family tree. She is mentioned in "Knight's Gambit," in a sentence about Mrs. Harriss: she has "spent ten years among what his great-aunt would have called the crowned heads of Europe" (168). There's no way to tell from the story, or from the larger history of the Stevens family in the Yoknapatawpha fictions, if she is related to Charles' mother or his father.

267 Harriss

The first husband of the woman whom Gavin Stevens eventually marries is a bootlegger from New Orleans named only Mr. Harriss. Faulkner describes his offstage death memorably in three different texts: in "Knight's Gambit" he dies at his desk, "maybe," "because you can be shot just as discreetly across a desk in an office as anywhere else" (167–68); in The Town, he is brought back to Yoknapatawpha from New Orleans in "a bullet-proof hearse" (187); in The Mansion, he dies in a barber's chair, of "his ordinary thirty-eight calibre occupational disease" (218) - i.e.

268 Max Harriss

In "Knight's Gambit," the one text in which he has a significant presence, Max Harriss is the twenty-one-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. Harriss (nee Melisandre Backus). Gavin Stevens calls Max "the rich young earl" (192). As a son he takes after his gangster father; in a sense, the eyes have it: despite his "delicate face," there is "nothing delicate about the eyes" (143). Max is the older of "two spoiled children [born] a year apart" (148).

269 Miss Harriss

Like her mother, the 20-year-old daughter of "Mrs. Harriss" never gets a first name in "Knight's Gambit," the only text in which she has a significant presence. In other respects too she takes after her mother: "looking not wan so much as delicate and fragile and not even fragile so much as cold, evanescent, like one of the stalked white early spring flowers bloomed ahead of its time into the snow and the ice and doomed before your eyes without even knowing that it was dying, feeling not even any pain" (190–91).

270 Stevens, Grandfather of Gavin

The Stevenses are one of the older Yoknapatawpha families, but there is confusion about its earlier members. The first appearance of a Stevens is in "A Rose for Emily"; he is the eighty-year-old mayor of Jefferson referred to as "Judge Stevens" (122). According to Brooks, Dasher and Kirk, three of the scholars who create charts or indices of Faulkner's characters, this man is the same Judge Stevens who is Gavin's father in half a dozen other fictions.

271 James Beauchamp's Daughter

Like Nat Beauchamp in Go Down, Moses, Roth's mistress - James Beauchamp’s unnamed granddaughter in the revised version of "Delta Autumn" Faulkner published in Go Down, Moses - has an aunt in Vicksburg with whom she stays. This unnamed aunt is a widow who takes in washing to support her family. For someone like Ike McCaslin, raised in the culture of the Jim Crow South, "taking in washing" is enough to identify this woman, and her very light-skinned niece, as black.

272 Unnamed Father of Samuel Worsham Beauchamp

In "Go Down, Moses" and again the the chapter with that title in Go Down, Moses, Samuel Beauchamp's father "deserted him" when he was born and is "now in the state penitentiary for manslaughter" (258, 354). This "father who begot and deserted him" is described as "not only violent but bad"; Gavin Stevens, a white man, believes the "seed" this man planted in his son is the cause of his criminality, though Samuel's black grandmother blames the white landlord Roth Edmonds for her grandson's behavior (258, 354).

273 Unnamed Enslaved Grandmother of Ned McCaslin

In The Reivers, Ned McCaslin's grandmother is identified only as "a Negro slave" who belonged to Lucius McCaslin (31). According to McCaslin family lore, and Ned himself, she was impregnated by the white man who owned her, Old Carothers McCaslin.

274 Ike McCaslin's Children

These unnamed children of Ike McCaslin appear only briefly, and enigmatically, in the magazine version of "Delta Autumn," where it says that Ike "had had a wife and children once though no more" (274). Go Down, Moses begins by saying that Ike McCaslin was childless, and when Faulkner revised this story for that novel these children disappear.

275 Thucydides McCaslin

The slave Thucydides/Thucydus only appears in the novel Go Down, Moses by way of the McCaslin plantation ledgers, but the story outlined there is striking. He is the son of Roskus and Fibby and the husband who marries Eunice in the same year she is made pregnant by Old Carothers McCaslin, the white man who owns all four of these slaves. He was born in North Carolina. In his will Old Carothers bequeaths him land, but like Ike McCaslin, Thucydides renounces this inheritance. Instead, according to the ledgers, he chooses "to stay [on the plantation] and work it out" - i.e.

276 Beauchamp, Grandchildren of Lucas

These "grandchildren" of Lucas Beauchamp are mentioned only in the short story "A Point of Law," and the one reference to them there is ambiguous. "He had one daughter with grandchildren" (214) - this could mean that the grandchildren are his daughter's instead of his. No other details about them, or about Lucas' larger family, are given in this short story. (When Faulkner revised the story into the "Fire and the Hearth" chapter of Go Down, Moses, the phrase "one daughter with grandchildren" was omitted.)

277 Snopes, Mother of Eck

The mother of Eck is mentioned in The Hamlet because when Eck's first wife dies, Eck leaves their son, Wallstreet Panic, with his mother to raise, but she plays that role outside the narrative. She is also mentioned in the other two volumes in the Snopes trilogy, again in terms of something that happens outside the narrative, if it happens at all. Because Eck is such a good and generous person, in The Town Gavin Stevens declares that he 'must' be illegitimate, that his mother was committing adultery with someone not named Snopes when he was conceived.

278 Orestes Snopes

Orestes is one of the last Snopeses added to the family tree. He appears late in The Mansion as "a new Snopes living in Jefferson" (354). Also called Res, his exact relationship to Flem is never made clear. Flem establishes him in the converted carriage house on the Compson place, which Flem now owns, where the hog farm Res operates becomes a source of increasingly violent friction with his neighbor.

279 Mink Snopes' Step-Mother

In The Mansion Mink Snopes describes "the lady that raised me" as "jest" the wife of his father, and "no kin a-tall" to Mink himself (110). "Because she was a Christian" - a phrase that is meant to convey her self-righteousness - she regularly took him to church services and prayer meetings (117). She "always failed" Mink as a surrogate mother, but the novel has some sympathy for her as a battered wife: "a gaunt harried slattern of a woman . . . always either with a black eye or holding a dirty rag to her bleeding" (117).

280 Three Unspecified Snopeses

During Flem's funeral at the end of The Mansion, Gavin Stevens notices three people whom he has never seen before, and he knows almost immediately that "they are Snopeses," with "country faces" that make him think of "wolves come to look at the trap where another bigger wolf . . . died" (463). These are the last members of the family Faulkner creates, and as an anonymous group they seem meant to suggest how futile is the effort to defeat 'Snopesism.'

281 Watkins Products Snopes

Another Snopes who appears for the first time in the last novel of the Snopes trilogy, Watkins Products Snopes is the carpenter and kinsman whom Flem hires to renovate the house that was formerly owned by Manfred de Spain; it is Wat's work, along with Flem's ambitions, that create 'the mansion' of the novel's title. He is named for a real company that has sold health products since 1868. His exact relationship to Flem or any of the other Snopeses is never specified.

282 Barton Kohl

According to Ratliff, the Greenwich Village sculptor who marries Linda Snopes is "not big, he jest looked big, like a football player" (190), and his "pale eyes" looked at you "missing nothing" (191). Several characters in The Mansion make it a point to mention that he is Jewish. Like so many of the southern men in the other fictions, however, Barton Kohl goes off to fight in a civil war - the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s. He is killed there while serving with the Loyalists.

283 Invalid Snopes

After referring to the "incoming Snopeses" as a group, the narrator of Flags in the Dust singles out one to individualize: "there was one, an invalid of some sort, who operated a second-hand peanut parcher" (167). A "parcher" is a pushcart for roasting and selling peanuts on the street. (This may be the fictions' first mention of Eck Snopes. In The Town; Eck works as a watchman who wears a neck brace and is liked by "all the boys" in Jefferson because "he kept a meal sack full of raw peanuts" that he would share with them by the "handful" (116).

284 Snopes 1

The "Mr Snopes" in Frenchman's Bend with whom Anse bargains for a new team of mules in As I Lay Dying is not given a first name (192). According to Armstid, he owns "three-four span[s]" of mules (184), which suggests he is a fairly prosperous farmer, perhaps even a landlord. According to Eustace Grimm, who "works Snopes' place," this farmer is the nephew of Flem Snopes (192) - if so, he is Flem's only nephew or niece in the fictions.

285 Lump Snopes' Grandmother

The Hamlet summarily describes Lump Snopes' grandmother as a "whining and sluttish" woman who keeps having children (218).

286 Lump Snopes' Father

According to The Hamlet, this member of the Snopes family was under indictment for stealing a "drummer's sample-case of shoes, all of the right foot" (218) when he married a schoolteacher and fathered one son with her before her untimely death.

287 Lump Snopes' Mother

Described in The Hamlet as a "thin, eager, plain woman who had never had quite enough to eat," Lump's mother grew up in a large family plagued by "a constant succession of not even successful petty-mercantile bankruptcies" (218). Despite her desire to better herself through education and teaching, she married a "man under indictment" and gave birth to a son that she named after the Arthurian knight Launcelot as an act of "quenchless defiance" against the grim circumstances of her life. She died soon after.

288 Unnamed Grandfather of Lump Snopes

In The Hamlet the man who was the father of Lump Snopes' mother is described as a "congenital failure" (218), living in a state of perpetual bankruptcy and fathering numerous children.

289 Eck Snopes' First Wife

The Hamlet provides virtually no details about Eck's first wife, beyond the possibility that she died either in childbirth or soon afterward (295). She and Eck had only one son, Wallstreet Panic, although the boy did not receive any actual name for some years.

290 Eck Snopes' Second Wife

This is the second of Eck's two wives in The Hamlet. He marries her six months after arriving in Frenchman's Bend. A "big, strong, tranquil-faced young woman" (220), she is from the family whom he meets while he and Flem are boarding at a farm outside of the village. Together Eck and his wife have three children, but they are only briefly alluded to in this novel. No previous wife is mentioned when Eck and this woman re-appear in The Town; now she is the mother of both Wallstreet Panic and Admiral Dewey - who were step-brothers earlier.

291 Ab Snopes' Sister

According to another character in The Hamlet, "Eustace's ma" - that is, the mother of Eustace Grimm - "was Ab Snopes' youngest sister" (399).

292 Eustace Grimm Sr.

Eustace Grimm's father is mentioned in The Hamlet, but all that the novel says is that he had two wives: the first one, Eustace's mother, is Ab Snopes' sister; the second is a "Fite" (399).

293 Eustace Grimm

When Eustace Grimm first appears in the canon, in As I Lay Dying, he is simply someone who "works at Snopes’ place" (192); in that role he brings Anse the team of mules he traded for with Mr. Snopes. He plays a more complex role in "Lizards in Jamshyd's Courtyard" and again in The Hamlet, as the "youngish man" in overalls with a snuff stick in his mouth" from "the adjoining county" who seems to be competing with Suratt and Tull to buy the Old Frenchman place (147).

294 Snopes 2

The one member of the Snopes family who appears in "Shingles for the Lord" is not given a first name, and only given two minor roles to play in the story: he brings the ladder to the church in his wagon (38), and is among the members of the congregation who are there to watch as the church burns down (41).

295 Clarence Snopes' Grandmother

In the short story "By the People," Clarence Snopes' grandmother is identified as Billy Varner's "distant cousin by marriage," which helps explain Varner's interest in Clarence's career (130). (When Faulkner retells the story of Clarence as Varner's protege in The Mansion, his grandmother is not mentioned.)

296 Snopes, Brother of Mink

In The Mansion Mink Snopes tells the prison warden that Montgomery Ward Snopes is "my brother's grandson" (99). This is the only reference to Mink's brother in the fictions, and chronologically the possibility that a brother of Mink would have a grandchild Montgomery Ward's age is unlikely. Ratliff asks Montgomery Ward if Mink is his "cousin or uncle" (71); Montgomery refuses to answer, but in his own narrative chapter he refers to Mink as "Uncle Mink" (103).

297 Snopes 3

This is one of the two Snopeses in The Town whose place in the family is impossible to determine. He is mentioned in connection with Ab Snopes' moving into Frenchman's Bend: "another Snopes had appeared from somewhere to take over the rented farm" that Ab had been working (6). Most of the Snopeses start out as tenant farmers, but there's no indication that this particular "Snopes" is one of the male Snopeses to whom the narrative gives a first name, though that is possible.

298 Unnamed "Father" of Eck Snopes

Neither of Eck's parents appear directly in The Town, but two of the novel's narrators - Ratliff and Gavin - do discuss his parentage. Based on their contempt for 'Snopeses,' they both feel strongly that since Eck is so good a person, genetically he is "not a Snopes" (32). Thus they invent this "titular father" for him: the imaginary man with whom Eck's mother had an affair (33).

299 Dink Quistenberry

Chick Mallison says in The Town that Dink "had married one of Mr Snopes's sisters or nieces or something out at Frenchman's Bend and when Mr Snopes sent I.O. Snopes back to the country the Quistenberrys came into buy or rent or anyway run the Snopes Hotel"; he adds that "Dink was old enough to be Mr Snopes's brother-in-law or whatever it was but he was the kind of man it just didn't occur to you to say Mister to" (378). The "Mr Snopes" in these phrases is of course Flem, but that doesn't help clarify how Flem and Quistenberry are related.

300 Dewitt Binford

According to The Town, "Dewitt Binford had married another of the Snopes girls. They lived near Varner's store" (383). Binford and his wife contract to provide room and board for the four children of Bryon Snopes.

301 Snopes 4

The Mansion calls this Snopes "the last" in the sequence of Snopeses who move from Frenchman's Bend to Jefferson, and also "the old one" (136). He is extremely choleric: "fierce eyes under a tangle of eyebrows and a neck that would begin to swell and turn red" as soon as he felt challenged (136). He doesn't actually move into town, but reaches a point "in sight of the town clock" and then refuses to go further (136), settling into a place where he can wage war against the boys who try to raid his "water-melon patch" (137). Some people think he is "Mr Flem's father" (i.e.

302 Old Maid Snopes

This particular Snopes is identified in The Town only as the "old maid daughter" of the man (either Flem's father Ab or Flem's unnamed uncle) who lives in a house just close enough to Jefferson to see the town clock (136). Also in the household are two of I.O. Snopes' children, but her relationship to them is not defined at all. She may be Flem's sister, but more likely is another of Flem's many cousins.

303 Eustace Grimm's Child

When Eustace Grimm first appears in The Hamlet, he and his wife have just had a "baby born two months ago" (387). No other details, not even the baby's gender, are revealed, but since Eustace's mother is "Ab Snopes' youngest sister" (399), this child deserves a place on the Snopes family tree.

304 Mrs. Eustace Grimm

In The Hamlet Ratliff notes that Eustace Grimm's new wife is a "Calhoun County Doshey" (399). (There are no Dosheys elsewhere in the fictions.)

305 Belle Worsham|Eunice Habersham

Although she has two very different names in the four texts in which she appears, the character of this admirable woman - the last in Faulkner's series of redoubtable elderly women - does not change. As Miss Belle Worsham she appears in "Go Down, Moses" and the chapter with that title in Go Down, Moses, the granddaughter of a man who owned slaves and the daughter of a man who left her a "decaying house" in Jefferson (260, 356). She and the black Mollie Beauchamp grew up together, and remain loyal to each other decades later.

306 Old Man Killegrew

Old Man Killgrew is a farmer who lives near the Griers in Frenchman's Bend. Although he never appears in person, he is mentioned in all three of the World War II stories about the Grier family. Killigrew is seventy years old, and prosperous enough to have a cook. He hunts foxes the old-fashioned way, which in Faulkner's Mississippi means "squatting on a hill" rather than riding to the hounds (27). His and his wife's deafness means that the Grier sons can stand outside his house and hear his radio reporting on the progress of the war.

307 Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the U.S. who led the nation during the Civil War, is mentioned in 10 Yoknapatawpha fictions, almost as many as Robert E. Lee - and more than twice as many as Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederacy. He never appears in person, and is typically represented from the perspective of one or another former Confederate. In "Wash," Colonel Thomas Sutpen longs to "shoot [Lincoln and General Sherman] down, like the dogs they are" (540).

308 Acey

In "Pantaloon in Black" and again in Go Down, Moses, Acey is a member of Rider's mill gang who is present at Mannie's funeral. He tries to offer comfort in the form of company and “a jug in de bushes” (239, 130).

309 Adolph Hitler

Adolph Hitler was the infamous leader of Nazi Germany from 1933 until his death in 1945 at the end of World War II. He is first mentioned in "Delta Autumn," where Ike McCaslin calls him an "Austrian paper-hanger" (322) - repeating a term of contempt that was popular in America at the time; Hitler was born in Austria-Hungary, but there's no evidence that he was ever a "paper-hanger." In The Mansion Gavin Stevens calls him "the Nibelung maniac" (258).