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2946 Unnamed Negro Clients of Mrs. Down

In Intruder in the Dust a steady stream of Negroes goes in and out of the house of the fortune-teller Mrs. Downs "all day long and without doubt most of the night" (69).

2947 Unnamed Negro Inmates 5

When Sheriff Hampton goes out to investigate Vinson Gowrie's grave in Intruder in the Dust, he takes along two Negro prisoners from the jail to do the digging. Both are dressed in "blue jumpers and the soiled black-ringed convict pants which the street gangs wore" (136; in this context "street gangs" are chain gangs or convict work gangs). The narrative makes no effort to distinguish these "two Negroes," as they are repeatedly called (154, 156, 157, etc.). Both are equally anxious about their task, especially when Vinson's father appears.

2948 Unnamed Negro Domestics

The Negro servants who work for the white population of Jefferson are almost completely invisible in Intruder in the Dust. This is by their own actions: anxious about what might happen after Lucas is arrested for killing a white man, they stop going outside, even to work. But their absence provokes two descriptions of who they are, or at least what they look like, under conventional circumstances. On Sunday morning Chick imagines the "housemaids or cooks in their fresh Sunday aprons" on the porches of their employers' homes (38).

2949 Unnamed Negro Girls and Women

According to Intruder in the Dust, on a typical evening one would see "Negro girls and women" outside the window of the jail, talking with the black men who are confined inside it (38). Even though the exceptional circumstances of the story have kept them away and in hiding, the narrator describes them as "the women in the aprons of cooks or nurses and the girls in their flash cheap clothes from the mail order houses" (50).

2950 Unnamed Original Inhabitants of Jefferson

According to Gavin Stevens in Intruder in the Dust, "all the men" who first came to Jefferson worked together to build it, "to shape a land for their posterity" (49); according to this account, "the jailer then" or the "innkeeper or farrier or vegetable peddler" could be "what the lawyer and planter and doctor and parson called a gentleman" (49). This definition of "all the men" leaves out the ones who were enslaved.

2951 Unnamed Overseer 2

In Intruder in the Dust the "overseer" at the Mallison farm helps Mrs. Mallison look for her missing ring (70).

2952 Unnamed People at Fraser's Store

In Intruder in the Dust, "every tenant and renter and freeholder white or black in the neighborhood" would find a reason to go to the crossroads store on Saturdays, "quite often to buy something" but also often just to visit with each other (18).

2953 Unnamed People at the Football Game

In Intruder in the Dust the crowd of spectators at the football game in the Mottstown high school stadium is divided between the people who "sit in the grandstand" and "the ones trotting and even running up and down the sideline following each play" (122).

2954 Unnamed Photographer

The man who photographed Lucas and Molly for the studio portrait that Chick sees in their cabin in Intruder in the Dust is not described, but at Lucas' insistence he did take Molly's headrag off.

2955 Unnamed Roommate of Mrs. Mallison

In Intruder in the Dust Chick's mother exchanged friendship rings with this "room-mate" when they were in college together "at Sweetbriar Virginia" (68). The woman lives in California now, and her daughter goes to Sweetbriar.

2956 Unnamed Sawmill Workers 1

In Intruder in the Dust these three "youngish white men from the crew of a nearby sawmill" are all "a little drunk" in Fraser's store when Lucas Beauchamp enters (18). One of them, with "a reputation for brawling and violence," is more than a little racist: he goes after Lucas for his attitude, calling him "biggity" among other names (18, 19). (This crew is probably entirely different from the "[saw]mill crew" who are hired three years later by the Vinson and Crawford Gowrie.)

2957 Unnamed Sawmill Workers 2

In Intruder in the Dust the crew who work in the sawmill where trees from Sudley Workitt's land are turned into lumber are "hired by the day" (219). They are almost certainly not the same men as the "three youngish white men from the crew of a nearby sawmill" (18). The two sawmills are close enough in space, but not in time: that earlier group appears three years before the Gowrie's begin harvesting Workitt's timber.

2958 Unnamed School Bus Drivers

According to Intruder in the Dust, Mondays through Fridays these "owner-contractor-operators" drive the buses that carry the children of the county to school in town, but on Saturdays and holidays they turn the buses into "pay-passenger transport," charging the country people a fare to bring them to Jefferson (132).

2959 Unnamed School Superintendent

In Intruder in the Dust this superintendent of the schools in Jefferson calls Gavin Stevens to ask whether to have school on Monday.

2960 Unnamed Spinster

This "old lady, dead now" is called a "spinster" by the narrator of Intruder in the Dust. She was "a neighbor" of Chick Mallison, who baked treats for "all the children on the street" and taught them to play a card game that she made sure she won (58).

2961 Unnamed Strangers

In the last chapter of Intruder in the Dust we learn that "for weeks" after the story ends, these "strangers" would ask the people of Yoknapatawpha how a man in jail could get hold of a gun to shoot himself with (232). Apparently they don't have any other questions about what has happened in the novel.

2962 Unnamed Negro Street Crews

Like the other black inhabitants of Jefferson and Yoknapatawpha, the "street department crews" are no where to be seen on the Monday after Lucas is arrested, though this doesn't prevent the narrator of Intruder in the Dust from describing their usual employment: "flushing the pavement with hoses and sweeping up the discarded Sunday papers and empty cigarette packs" (119). One irony of Intruder is that the absence of the black population results in the narrative describing them in more detail than any other Yoknapatawpha fiction provides.

2963 Unnamed Tennessee Police

The "Tennessee police" who close Jake Montgomery's roadhouse and "run him back across the Mississippi line" in Intruder in the Dust are presumably state police officers (113).

2964 Unnamed Truck Drivers

In Intruder in the Dust these "bachelor truck drivers" live in town in rented rooms and take their baths in the barbershop (39).

2965 Unnamed Undertaker's Employees

In Intruder in the Dust these "four or five men" take Jake Montgomery's body from the truck that brings it into town and through the back door into the funeral parlor (178).

2966 Unnamed Women in Civil War Jefferson

According to Intruder in the Dust, old houses like Miss Habersham's "still seem to be spellbound by the shades of women, old women still spinsters and widows waiting . . . waiting for the slow telegraph to bring them news of Tennessee and Virginia and Pennsylvania battles" (117).

2967 Unnamed Young Men in Jefferson

This is the group that the narrator of Intruder in the Dust refers to (twice) as "the young men and some not so young" (27, 39) who "work hard all week [hanging around] in the poolhall" (39). They are also identified with the barber shop, and on ordinary evenings after the movie ends at least some of them can be found "drinking coca cola and playing nickels into the drugstore jukebox" (208). Some of them "have some vague connection with cotton or automobiles or land- and stock-sales"; all of them bet on "prize fights and punchboards and national ballgames" (39).

2968 Hence Cayley

In "Knight's Gambit" Hence Cayley is the father of the "country girl" (192) who's been dating Max Harriss; according to her, "he dont think Max is any good" (193). His farm is "about two miles" from the Harriss place (192).

2969 Miss Cayley

In "Knight's Gambit" Miss Cayley is the "farmer's daughter" who is engaged to Max Harriss, and also one of Sebastian Gualdres’ dalliances (191). She is "about the same age as the Harriss girl [that is, about 20 years old] but not quite as tall, slender yet solid too, as country-bred girls can look, with dark hair and black eyes" (192–93).

2970 Mrs. Hence Mossop Cayley

In "Knight's Gambit" Miss Cayley explains that before her marriage her "mother was a Mossop" (193).

2971 Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad is a British writer best known for works such as The Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim. He makes an appearance in "Knight's Gambit" when Gavin describes the Parisian street where he once visited Mrs. Harriss as the kind of street one can visit "simply by opening the right page in Conrad" (256).

2972 John Doe

John Doe is not a character in "Knight's Gambit" but a name Gavin Stevens uses to represent the shared experience of the veterans of World War I. Talking about these survivors Gavin says: "I am no more just John Doe of Jefferson, Mississippi," than the other vets from around the country (243).

2973 Joe Ginotta

Joe Ginotta is not a character in "Knight's Gambit" but one of the three hypothetical men whom Gavin Stevens uses to represent the veterans of the First World War: according to Gavin, "I am no more just John Doe of Jefferson, Mississippi; I am also Joe Ginotta of East Orange, New Jersey" (243).

2974 Melissa Hogganbeck

Melissa Hogganbeck is a history teacher at the Jefferson Academy that Charles Mallison attends in "Knight's Gambit." Her "tireless cultured educated 'lady's' voice" makes it hard for him to endure the class which she "now called World Affairs with capitals on both” (209). She also teaches American History before 1865 at "the Academy" to Linda Snopes in The Town (301). If either she or her grandfather, who is also mentioned in the novel, are related to Boon Hogganbeck, who appears in seven Yoknapatawpha fictions, the texts give no hint of it.

2975 Hampton Killegrew

In "Knight's Gambit" Hampton Killegrew is "the night marshal" of Jefferson (213).

2976 Charley Longfeather

Charley Longfeather is not a character in "Knight's Gambit" but is one of the three hypothetical men that Gavin Stevens uses to represent the veterans of World War I: Gavin says, “I am no more just John Doe of Jefferson, Mississippi; I am also . . . Charley Longfeather of Shoshone, Idaho” (243).

2977 Robert Markey

In "Knight's Gambit" Robert Markey is "a lawyer" and a man in Memphis "city politics . . . who had been at Heidelberg" with Gavin Stevens and now lives in the city (201). Gavin contacts him for assistance in keeping track of Max Harriss when he goes to Memphis.

2978 Mr. McWilliams

In "Knight's Gambit" Charles Mallison refers by name to the conductor of the train that takes him from training through Jefferson on his way to Texas: "Mr McWilliams, the conductor, was standing at the vestibule steps with his watch in his hand" (255).

2979 Paoli

In "Knight's Gambit" Paoli is the "famous Italian fencing-master" who taught Max Harriss (169). According to Harriss' unnamed sister, Max was "the best pupil Paoli had had in years" (190).

2980 Harry Wong

Harry Wong is not a character in "Knight's Gambit" but one of the three hypothetical men whom Gavin Stevens uses to represent the veterans of World War I: Gavin says, "I am no more just John Doe of Jefferson, Mississippi; I am also . . . Harry Wong of San Francisco" (243).

2981 Unnamed "Butlers"

The term "butler" in this instance from "Knight's Gambit" is a euphemism, used somewhat facetiously to describe the subordinate gangsters who take part in the funeral services for Mr. Harriss: "eight or ten of the butlers in their sharp clothes and arm-pitted pistols brought him home to lie in state" (168).

2982 Unnamed American Haberdashers

According to "Knight's Gambit," the elements of the uniform worn by the pilots of the Royal Air Force - "the blue of Britain and the hooked wings of a diving falcon and the modest braid of rank: but above all the blue, the color the shade which the handful of Anglo Saxon young men had established and decreed as [a] visual synonym of glory" - became so celebrated that "an association of American haberdashers or gents' outfitters had adopted it as a trade slogan" (206).

2983 Unnamed American Serviceman

Over 3000 U.S. servicemen were killed or wounded during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, but this entry reflects the unusual way that Charles Mallison recalls December 7th, 1941, in "Knight's Gambit" - "a Jap dropped a bomb on another American" (254).

2984 Unnamed Light-Colored Woman

While hunting for the first time in Go Down, Moses Ash is talking about this "new light-colored woman who nursed next door to Major de Spain's" when he is surprised by a yearling bear in the path (309). It's clear that this young "nurse" - that is, wet nurse - has caught his eye, but nothing else about her is known. Our decision to identify her as biracial is based on the way 'light-colored' or '-complexioned' is used elsewhere in the fictions.

2985 Unnamed Biracial Woman 2

The woman in Go Down, Moses whom Lucas calls a "yellow slut" - that is, she is light-skinned and promiscuous - was (perhaps unofficially) married to and (certainly unofficially) divorced from Oscar, one of the workers on the McCaslin plantation; she came to Jefferson from Memphis, and returned there after Roth Edmonds "voced" them, as Lucas puts it (115).

2986 Unnamed American Tourists and Expatriates

What Gavin Stevens in "Knight's Gambit" somewhat facetiously calls the "second" "American Expeditionary Force in France" that "began to land in Europe in 1919" are the many Americans who toured or moved to Europe in the years after the First World War (256). The "first" A.E.F., of course, were the one million soldiers in the U.S. Army who landed in France to join the British and French forces fighting Germany; they had returned home by 1919.

2987 Unnamed American World War I Soldiers

The "first American Expeditionary Force" that Gavin Stevens refers to in "Knight's Gambit" are the more than one million U.S. troops who landed in France in 1917 and 1918 to join England and France in the fight against the Germany (256).

2988 Unnamed Aviators

During the chess game with Uncle Gavin, the narrator in "Knight's Gambit" compares his thinking to that of "airmen," who measure duration "by contiguous and not elapsed time" (184).

2989 Unnamed British Aviators

In "Knight's Gambit" Charles Mallison thinks of "the British, the handful of boys, some no older than he and some probably not even as old, who flew the Royal Air Force’s fighter command" against the German air campaign during the Battle of Britain in 1940 (205). The valor of these R.A.F. pilots was widely celebrated during and after World War II.

2990 Unnamed Caretaker 1

In "Knight's Gambit" Harriss rents the plantation he inherits from his father-in-law to this "caretaker," a man who "didn’t even live in the county" but commutes from Memphis except during planting and harvest season, when he camps out in one the abandoned Negro cabins (159-60).

2991 Unnamed Caretaker 2

In "Knight's Gambit," this "caretaker" at the Harriss estate is "not the old one, the first renter" - a man from Memphis who manages the farming part of the estate - but "a fat Italian or Greek" from New Orleans, "who lives in the house all the time," even when it is otherwise empty (162). Harriss calls him "his butler"; when guests arrive he waits on them wearing "a four-in-hand tie of soft scarlet silk" and carrying "a pistol loose in his hip pocket" (162).

2992 Unnamed Grandfather of Mrs. Harriss

This character 'appears' in "Knight's Gambit" by way of one of Faulkner's typical negative formulations, in the middle of a sentence that develops the idea that Sebastian Gualdres is a "stranger" in Yoknapatawpha by noting that, when locals visit him at the Backus-Harriss Plantation, they are "guests not of the woman who owned the place and whose family name they had known all her life and her father's and grandfather's too" - that is, they are his guests (174). But the point here is that this woman - Mrs.

2994 Unnamed Friends of Mrs. Harris

These are the "five or six girls" in "Knight's Gambit" who "attended the female half of the Academy" with Mrs. Harriss and "who had been the nearest thing she had to friends" (152). These girlhood friends are the women who would receive seasonal cards from Mrs. Harriss "postmarked from Rome or London or Paris or Vienna or Cairo" (166). Maggie Mallison is one of these women, but none of the others are named.

2995 Unnamed Hill Farmers

Passing through Jefferson on his way from pre-flight to basic training in "Knight's Gambit," Charles Mallison sees "the wagons and pick-ups of the hill farmers" who are making one of their weekly visits to town (251). By 'hill farmers,' the narrative means the families that farm on the poorer land in the hilly parts of Yoknapatawpha county.

2996 Unnamed Holocaust Victims

When Charles Mallison explains Gualdres' reason for enlisting in the fight against Nazi Germany in "Knight's Gambit," he includes among the possible reasons the fact that the Germans "were rendering a whole race into fertilizer and lubricating oil" - an odd and perhaps callous way to refer to the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jewish population of Europe (255). (Gualdres' actual reason, according to Charles, is that the Germans "had abolished horses from civilized cavalry," 255).

2997 Unnamed Hotel Employees

At the Greenbury hotel in "Knight's Gambit," Max Harriss is well known "to all the clerks and telephone girls and the Negro doormen and bellboys and waiters" (208).

2998 Unnamed Inspector-General

This "inspector-general" in "Knight's Gambit" is apparently part of the Reserve Officer Training Corps, which was officially organized in 1915 to train male college students in military tactics and discipline (205). He certifies the high quality of the R.O.T.C. program that Charles Mallison participates in as a student at the Academy in Jefferson. R.O.T.C. programs are usually based in colleges and universities, but according to Charles, "although the Academy was only a prep school, it had one of the highest R.O.T.C.

2999 Unnamed Japanese Aviator

Several thousand Japanese sailors and aviators participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor that provoked the U.S. to declare war, but this entry reflects the unusual way Charles Mallison describes the attack in "Knight's Gambit": "a Jap dropped a bomb on another American" (254).

3000 Unnamed Painter

The man who makes "Miss Zilphia Gant" a Missus is introduced as "a tramp painter," an itinerant whom her mother hires to repaint the dressmaking shop. His last name is never given, so we cannot know Zilphia's married name. Her husband is described as "a young man with black hair and eyes like wood ashes" (375). Despite his own prejudice against any "woman that wore glasses" (377), he falls in love with Zilphia, and vows to her to "get you out of" the miserable life her mother forces her to live (376).

3001 Unnamed Partner of Zilphia

In "Miss Zilphia Gant" this woman becomes Zilphia's "partner" in the dressmaking shop less than a year after Mrs. Gant's death (378).

3002 Unnamed Postmaster

In "Miss Zilphia Gant," the town's postmaster teases Zilphia every week about the letters she receives from Memphis; although the letters "bear the return address of a private detective agency," he "rallies her on her city sweetheart" (379). Behind his "insincerity" there is apparently some "pity" for her (379).

3003 Unnamed School Friend

In "Miss Zilphia Gant," the one girl whom Zilphia has permission to visit and play with after school is not named or described, but after the two girls have grown up the narrative mentions her marriage (Zilphia herself makes the bride's "white gown," 374), and, after another four years, the birth of her first child, a daughter (for whom Zilphia makes dresses).

3004 Unnamed Second Husband of Zilphia

In the last section of "Miss Zilphia Gant," the title character returns to Jefferson after a three-year absence, "in mourning," with "a plain gold band" on her hand, "and a child" (381). She tells people about "her second marriage and her husband's death" (381), but it seems most likely that this husband is a figment of Miss Zilphia's imagination and a way to explain that child. In any case, just like the painter whom Zilphia did marry, he's never given a name, and so effectively she remains 'Miss Zilphia' - the name the narrator uses throughout.

3005 Unnamed Shopkeepers in Jefferson

The "them" in the phrase "made them return her money" is the only reference in "Miss Zilphia Gant" to the people who own or work in the store where Mrs. Gant bought and then brought back a miniature cook stove (373).

3006 Mrs. Vinson

In "Miss Zilphia Gant," Mrs. Vinson "conducts" the business at the tavern where Jim Gant stays (368). A "youngish" woman, "with cold eyes and a hard infrequent tongue," she may be the wife or possibly the daughter of the "oldish" man in the background of the place (368), but she runs off from there with Gant. Together, they get as far as Memphis before Gant's wife catches up with them and kills them both.

3007 Bobbie Allen

In Light in August, Bobbie comes from a brothel in Memphis to the railroad town where she works for Max and Mame, by day as a waitress "in a small, dingy, back street restaurant" and by night as a prostitute. She responds to the romantic advances of 18-year old Joe Christmas, even though "she would never see thirty again" (172).

3008 Miss Atkins

In Light in August, Miss Atkins is the dietitian - "young, a little fullbodied, smooth, pink-and-white" - believes the five-year-old Joe Christmas is "going to tell" of her sexual episode with the young intern (120, 124). She calls Joe a "little nigger bastard" and raises questions with the matron about his racial identity so that he will be removed from the orphanage before exposing her (122).

3009 Brother Bedenberry

In Light in August, Bedenberry is preaching when Joe enters the Negro church and tries "to snatch him outen the pulpit" (323).

3010 Buford

In Light in August, Deputy Buford discovers "traces of recent occupation" in the cabin beyond Joanna's house (290) and "reckons" that if there is anyone living in that place, they would be Negroes.

3011 Byron Bunch

One of the major characters in Light in August, Bryon Bunch is a "small man who will not see thirty again" (47). He came to Jefferson seven years before the novel begins, and leaves the town before it ends. The bookkeeper at the planing mill where he works calls him a "hillbilly" (413). While in Jefferson, for six days every week he is a steady, dependable worker in the mill; every Sunday he directs a country church choir. Scrupulously honest with himself and others, Byron is also a sweet-tempered man.

3012 Lucas Burch

In Light in August, Lucas Burch is "tall, young. Dark complected" (55). One of the "sawdust Casanovas" among the Doane's Mill workers, Lucas Burch impregnates and deserts Lena Grove in Alabama (6). He finds his way to Jefferson, where, unimaginatively changing his name to "Joe Brown," he takes a menial job in the planing mill, but he quits to join Christmas as partner in a bootleg whiskey business.

3013 Lem Bush

In Light in August Lem Bush is the neighbor in Arkansas who takes Milly Hines to the circus in his wagon.

3014 Miss Carruthers

In Light in August, Miss Carruthers was the organist in Hightower's church when he preached there, but has now "been dead for almost twenty years" (366).

3015 Unnamed Father of Joe Christmas

Joe's biological father in Light in August is called "a fellow with the circus" who tries to ride off with Milly Hines on a dark rainy night, but is shot and killed by Milly's father (374). He and Milly are together long enough for her to get pregnant. His legacy to his son, who is given the name Joe Christmas in the Memphis orphanage, is the mystery of his own racial identity. Doc Hines is convinced he is a Negro, i.e. in the racist world of segregation, has "nigger blood" (374). Milly apparently tries to tell her parents "the man is a Mexican" (374).

3016 Eupheus (Doc) Hines

At one time a railroad brakeman and at another a sawmill foreman, in Light in August Doc Hines is a man "whom time, circumstance, something, had betrayed" (127).

3017 Mrs. Hines

Mrs. Hines, the mother of Milly and grandmother of Joe Christmas, is described in Light in August as "a dumpy, fat little woman with a round face like dirty and unovened dough, and a tight screw of scant hair" (346). Early on, she is a much less vivid character than her dominating husband, whose religious fanaticism seems to control them both. Later, after she realizes that Joe Christmas is the grandson whom her husband had taken from her thirty-five years earlier, she takes charge of her husband, manages to visit Joe in jail, and seeks assistance on Joe's behalf.

3018 Milly Hines

In Light in August the mother whom Joe Christmas never knew was a young woman in Arkansas when she had a very brief relationship with "a fellow with the circus" that passed through her neighborhood (374). Nine months after that man is killed by her father, Milly dies giving birth to their child.

3019 Joe Christmas

Joe Christmas' story is the most developed of the various narrative lines in Light in August, though at its center is the unresolvable question of his racial identity. The novel refers to his skin more than once as "parchmentcolored" (120), but race in the world of the novel is defined by the (hypothetical) color of one's "blood," as black or white. Joe is not definitively one or the other. He is the illegitimate son of Milly Hines and a circus worker of uncertain lineage, left at Christmas time anonymously at an orphanage in Memphis by his grandfather, Doc Hines.

3020 Cinthy

In Light in August Cinthy (like her husband Pomp) was a slave who belonged to the elder Gail Hightower. She cooked for him, and "raised [his son] from babyhood" (470). After both her husband and her master are killed during the War, she rejects the idea that she is now "free" (477) and moves back to the Hightower home to cook for that son and his family.

3021 Mame Confrey

In Light in August Mame is a big, brass-haired woman. During the day she sits "like a carved lioness guarding a portal, presenting respectability like a shield," behind a cigar case near the front of the dingy restaurant where Christmas meets Bobbie (175). At night she is the madam of the small town brothel which she runs with her husband.

3022 Max Confrey

In Light in August Max maintains discipline in the small restaurant he runs and acts as pimp in the brothel he manages.

3023 Dollar

Dollar is the Mottstown store-keeper in Light in August who tells the town about how Mrs. Hines retrieves her husband from the chair where she had left him and rents a car from Salmon to take them to Jefferson.

3024 Mr. Gillman

Gillman owns the Arkansas sawmill where Hine works as foreman in Light in August.

3025 Percy Grimm

Introduced into Light in August in Chapter 19, twenty-five year old Grimm brings Joe Christmas' life to a violent end. A captain in the state national guard, he organizes American Legion members to patrol Jefferson even though both the Legion commander and the sheriff refuse to give him permission. When he insists on carrying a gun, the sheriff makes him a special deputy (455). Like Christmas, Grimm's life seems strangely determined.

3026 Grimm, Father of Percy

In Light in August Percy Grimm's father is described as a "hardware merchant" who thinks his son is lazy and unlikely to amount to anything (450).

3027 Grove, Father of Lena

In Light in August Lena Grove's father dies in the same summer as her mother does, when Lena is twelve years old. Both parents have impressed upon her a sense of filial duty; she takes care of her father at her mother's dying request and goes to live with her brother McKinley in accordance with her father's wish.

3028 Grove, Mother of Lena

In Light in August Lena Grove's mother dies in the same summer as Lena's father does,, when Lena is twelve years old. Both parents have impressed upon her a sense of filial duty; she takes care of her father at her mother's dying request and goes to live with her brother McKinley in accordance with her father's wish.

3029 Lena Grove

Lena Grove is at the center of one of the three major plot lines in Light in August. Born in Alabama in 1912, she moved to her brother's house at the age of twelve, after her parents died. When the novel begins, she is around 21 years old, more than eight months pregnant, and traveling alone and on foot to find Lucas Burch, the father of her unborn child. Lena is a patient, trusting soul who feels no shame at her condition; she is also self-reliant, asking for no one's help yet accepting it gratefully during four weeks of traveling.

3030 McKinley Grove

In Light in August McKinley Grove brings his twelve-year-old sister Lena to live with his family in Doane's Mill, Alabama, after the death of their parents. He is "just forty" years old and "twenty years her senior" (5), which gives him a birth date in 1892. "He was a hard man": when his wife tells him that Lena is pregnant, he "calls her whore," (6), after which Lena leaves Doane's Mill in search of her baby's father.

3031 Mrs. McKinley Grove

In Light in August McKinley Grove's wife is described as "labor- and childridden," spending "almost half of every year either pregant or "recovering" (5), so it is not surprising that she discovers her sister-in-law Lena's pregnancy and tells McKinley about it.

3032 Grove, Children of McKinley

Light in August says that Grove McKinley's wife was "labor- and childridden," so the couple probably had more than the three sons who are specifically referred to (5). Because their mother is always either "lying in or recovering," Lena takes care of these boys; like Lena, they sleep in the "leanto room" attached to the McKinley house (5).

3033 Halliday

In Light in August Halliday is the resident of Mottstown who recognizes Joe Christman and, after hitting him in the face, captures him in the hope of claiming the thousand dollar reward.

3034 Gail Hightower I

In Light in August, Reverend Gail Hightower's grandfather and namesake was a lawyer who owned slaves. Alive he was a "hale, bluff, rednosed man with the moustache of a brigand chief" (471), and a "thorn in his son's side" - because his son was an abolitionist. He is killed during the Civil War while on a cavalry raid against Union stores in Jefferson.

3035 Hightower, Father of Gail

The son of one Gail Hightower and the father of another, this man is never given a first name in Light in August. A "man of spartan sobriety" (472), in the years before the Civil War he "rides sixteen miles each Sunday to preach in a small Presbyterian chapel back in the hills" (468). He also opposes slavery and refuses to be served by his father's slaves.

3036 Hightower, Mother of Gail

In Light in August Reverend Hightower's mother is the daughter of a genteel church-going couple without substantial means. By the time she has her first and only child, she has been an invalid for almost twenty years, possibly because she was malnourished during the Civil War.

3037 Reverend Gail Hightower

Reverend Gail Hightower's story is one of the three principal plot lines in Light in August. After seminary, he worked hard to secure the position of minister to the Presbyterian church in Jefferson, the site where his grandfather had died in a Civil War raid twenty years before his own birth. His obsession with that grandfather results in his loss of his wife, his pulpit and his vocation. For most of the twenty-five years he has lived in Jefferson, he has been treated as a pariah: the narrative describes him as a "fifty-year-old outcast" (49), "tall, with thin . . .

3038 Jupe

One of the men in the group of "five or six" Negroes in Light in August who encounter Christmas at night on his way back to the Burden place is called "Jupe" (117). He identifies Christmas as "a white man" and in a voice that is neither "threatful" nor "servile" asks him who he is looking for (117).

3039 Sheriff Watt Kennedy

The county sheriff in Light in August is named Watt Kennedy. Described as a "fat, comfortable man" (287), "with little wise eyes like bits of mica embedded in his fat, still face" (420), he investigates the murder of Joanna Burden and pursues Joe Christmas across the countryside (287). Like so many other characters in this novel, he never appears elsewhere in the Yoknapatawpha fictions.

3040 Mrs. McEachern

Joe Christmas' foster-mother in Light in August, Mrs. McEachern, is a small, timid woman, a "patient, beaten creature without sex demarcation," who looks fifteen years older than her husband and who has been hammered "into an attenuation of dumb hopes and frustrated desires now faint and pale as dead ashes" (147, 165). She tries without success or acknowledgement to provide what she thinks Joe wants and needs.

3041 Simon McEachern

In Light in August Simon McEachern is more than forty years old when he adopts the five-year-old Joe Christmas from the Memphis orphanage and takes him to the farm where he and his wife live. The narrative describes him as "somehow rocklike, indomitable, not so much ungentle as ruthless" (143-44). His voice is that "of a man who demanded that he be listened to not so much with attention but in silence" (142).

3042 Metcalf

In Light in August Metcalf guards Joe at the jail in Mottstown.

3043 Mooney

Mooney is the foreman at the planing mill where, for varying lengths of time, Bryon Bunch, Joe Christmas and 'Joe Brown' (i.e. Lucas Burch) all work in Light in August.

3044 E.E. Peebles

The Memphis lawyer with an office on Beale Street who conducts Joanna Burden's business affairs in Light in August is named Peebles. He is also the trustee of one of the Negro colleges she aids, and one of the very few black professionals in the Yoknapatawpha fictions who is not a minister. He does not appear directly in the novel.

3045 Pomp

In Light in August Pomp (presumably short for 'Pompey') is Cinthy's husband and the first Gail Hightower's slave. Though called "boy," he is older than his master, and is completely bald (471). He follows his master to war and refuses to believe that he could have been killed in the cavalry raid in Jefferson. Pomp himself is reportedly killed after attacking "a Yankee officer with a shovel" in an attempt to see or perhaps rescue "Marse Gail" (476-77).

3046 Russell

In Light in August Russell works in the Sheriff Kennedy's office and gossips about Mrs. Hines's visit.